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Immunology is the study of the body's defense mechanisms.

Areas relevant to Orthopaedics are: trauma, infection, transplantation, tumours, autoimmune disease & bone remodelling.

Immune Responses to Trauma or Infection:

  1. Nonspecific
  2. Specific
    1. Cellular
    2. Humoral

1. Nonspecific Immune Response / Inflammatory Reaction:

  • Tissue injury -> Histamine, kinins, prostaglandins, leukotriens & Nitric Oxide released -> Vasodilatation & incr. capillary permeability -> Macrophage activation (2 minutes)
  • Enhanced by complement system; inhibited by NSAIDs


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