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Also see Cerebral Palsy


  • Spine

  • Pelvic obliquity

  • Hip - Trendelenburg

  • Knee

  • Feet - Jack's Test, Tip toe


  • Sagittal - hip, knee, ankle, rockers

  • Coronal - hip, knee, ankle, rockers

  • Transverse - thigh, shin, foot (pronation posture of foot)


  • Spine

  • Pelvic obliquity


  • Knees down to end of couch with lower legs off end

  • Active ROM - hip, knee, foot & ankle

  • Hip

    • FFD (Thomas test)

    • Abduction

    • Rotation (hips extended & knees flexed off end of couch)

  • Knee

    • FFD

    • Hamstring tightness

    • Popliteal angle - flex hip to 90deg. & extend knee (angle in front of knee, not in popliteal fossa)

  • Ankle

    • Silverskold's Test - equinus improves with knee flexion, indicating gastrocnemius is tighter than soleus.


  • Hip

    • Tibial rotation (malleolar plane)

    • Thigh-foot angle (3rd toe to mid heel & thigh)

    • Duncan-Ely Test for rectus femoris tightness

    • IR & ER - lay forearm on post. pelvis & palpate greater trochanter (idea of amount of anteversion or retroversion of neck)

    • Staheli test - for flexion posture of hip (hips flexed over end of couch, support pelvis posteriorly & passively extend hip)


  • Ober's Test - for TFL tightness - knee flexed & hip in neutral, extend knee & observe hip - positive if hip abducts

  • Abductor power


  • Total Flexor Pattern -> eliminates clonus pattern

  • Clasp-knife phenomenon (correlates with cospastisity in swing)

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